Before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, most people resided in small, rural communities where their daily existences revolved around farming. Life for the average person was difficult, as incomes were meager, and malnourishment and disease were common. People produced the bulk of their own food, clothing, furniture and tools. Most manufacturing was done in homes or small, rural shops, using hand tools or simple machines.
Did You Know?
The word "luddite" refers to a person who is opposed to technological change. The term is derived from a group of early 19th century English workers who attacked factories and destroyed machinery as a means of protest. They were supposedly led by a man named Ned Ludd, though he may have been an apocryphal figure.
A number of factors contributed to Britain’s role as the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. For one, it had great deposits of coal and iron ore, which proved essential for industrialization. Additionally, Britain was a politically stable society, as well as the world’s leading colonial power, which meant its colonies could serve as a source for raw materials, as well as a marketplace for manufactured goods.
As demand for British goods increased, merchants needed more cost-effective methods of production, which led to the rise of mechanization and the factory system.
Innovation and Industrialization
The textile industry, in particular, was transformed by industrialization. Before mechanization and factories, textiles were made mainly in people’s homes (giving rise to the term cottage industry), with merchants often providing the raw materials and basic equipment, and then picking up the finished product. Workers set their own schedules under this system, which proved difficult for merchants to regulate and resulted in numerous inefficiencies. In the 1700s, a series of innovations led to ever-increasing productivity, while requiring less human energy. For example, around 1764, Englishman James Hargreaves (1722-1778) invented the spinning jenny (“jenny” was an early abbreviation of the word “engine”), a machine that enabled an individual to produce multiple spools of threads simultaneously. By the time of Hargreaves’ death, there were over 20, 000 spinning jennys in use across Britain. The spinning jenny was improved upon by British inventor Samuel Compton’s (1753-1827) spinning mule, as well as later machines. Another key innovation in textiles, the power loom, which mechanized the process of weaving cloth, was developed in the 1780s by English inventor Edmund Cartwright (1743-1823).
Developments in the iron industry also played a central role in the Industrial Revolution. In the early 18th century, Englishman Abraham Darby (1678-1717) discovered a cheaper, easier method to produce cast iron, using a coke-fueled (as opposed to charcoal-fired) furnace. In the 1850s, British engineer Henry Bessemer (1813-1898) developed the first inexpensive process for mass-producing steel. Both iron and steel became essential materials, used to make everything from appliances, tools and machines, to ships, buildings and infrastructure.
The steam engine was also integral to industrialization. In 1712, Englishman Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729) developed the first practical steam engine (which was used primarily to pump water out of mines). By the 1770s, Scottish inventor James Watt (1736-1819) had improved on Newcomen’s work, and the steam engine went on to power machinery, locomotives and ships during the Industrial Revolution.sciencedirect open access journals astronomy careers science definition lifestyle list planetary symbol for pluto group fashion cost cutters firestone coffee makers at costco astronomy sign more on trend trending shoes for men part haircut coffee monday morning names of stars in the solar system coffee maker with grinder outfit ideas with jeans what part of london is the natural history museum history of astronomy webquest fashion now 1 coffee shops hiring near me outfit ideas for fall what is science for you normal star definition 2015 in science about of science getting haircut at supercuts fine haircut is science best coffee mountain view our family lifestyle coffee near me now how to do fashion beach party hashtags coffee cake topping against science dog lifestyle astronomy cake champion hair salon price coffee app for astronomy astronomy daily fashion 4 all now trends sam haircut my fashion game astronomy movie coffee meme skeleton history astronomy black lace midi bodycon dress black astronomy social justice and astrology trend 30 science buddies haircut off in my fashion kindergarten science experiment procedure party trends stars in the sky pics d or fashion science buddies experiments holiday hair in newport trending news on twitter middle ground coffee shop high haircut lifestyle lyrics clean version coffee at home coffee makers with grinder uv astronomy short black dress with sleeves body fit cool center tables sky observation astronomy vs astrology news on astronomy health is a lifestyle trend of data china astronomy lifestyle content hypoxia and heart failure coffee group lifestyle medicine premier cuts danvers hub's coffee san jose traveling science exhibit sponsor type trends i fashion science the soft news since bob coffee for 4 trends free haircut dress in the back only mens fashion can we produce atp without oxygen coffee enema youtube best trend fashion at i am fashion starships lyrics style by occasion scientific method definition quizlet be fashion 2013 trends science diet recalls google coffee house space themed articles what does science do dream maker dress after having a coffee 7 haircut sedentary lifestyle synonym pet haircut street style 2018 spring photo trend god of astronomy be the trend game trend science of being star is the sun constellations list men's trend twitter trending topics list coffee company this season clothing a shear dream bedroom whispers dress red fashion post what is astrology based on in some fashion trend is trends home astronomy sun haircut new life experiences lifestyle magazine coffee with any haircut place y not lifestyle medical lifestyle this lifestyle lifestyle young d c lifestyle foreign culture search astronomy lifestyles of the rich and famous robin leach video giant crab constellation she is fashion astronomy august how to have a lifestyle coffee table modern glass